Remembering the Forgotten Genocide: New Age Islam’s Selection, 24 August 2016

New Age Islam Edit Bureau

24 August 2016

Remembering the Forgotten Genocide

By Shahriar Kia

A Scorpion in Pakistani Politics

By Tariq A. Al-Maeena

Turkey’s Nightmare Is Unfolding in Syria

By Joyce Karam

Turkey Re-Evaluates Its Vital Interests

By Eyad Abu Shakra

Separation of Sexes At Hospitals

By Abdulaziz Al-Samary

Countries of Chaos and Prospects of Disintegration

By Turki Aldakhil

Compiled By New Age Islam Edit Bureau

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Remembering the Forgotten Genocide

By Shahriar Kia

24 August 2016

The audio clip of a private meeting between the late Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri, Khomeini’s closest aide and designated heir at the time, with various regime officials back in 1988 confirmed the previous revelations made by the Iranian opposition People’s Mojahedin Organization of Iran (PMOI/MeK) regarding the genocide and massacre of political prisoners carried out by Tehran back in the summer of that year.

This was a horrendous act of human rights violations and should lead to the opening of a dossier covering a grave crime against the Iranian people, and all of humanity.

More than 30,000 political prisoners, mainly PMOI/MeK members and supporters, were viciously killed and buried in mass graves, all in the span of a few months and under orders issued by Khomeini himself. However, why is the silence finally broken now after 28 years under such conditions? Without a doubt placing forward such evidence in any international court will find all senior current Iranian regime officials guilty.

This audio clip has been made public exactly one month after the massive Iranian opposition gathering in Paris, and shortly after a historic meeting between Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Iranian opposition leader Maryam Rajavi.

In all these events, in addition to the joint message voiced by European, American and especially Middle Eastern countries highlighting the necessity of overthrowing the regime in Iran, there is an emphasis on yet another united demand: Prosecuting Iranian regime officials for crimes against humanity, especially the summer 1988 massacre. The audio clip of Montazeri’s remarks unveils how many of the regime’s current officials, including supreme leader Ali Khamenei, former President Ali Akbar Rafsanjani and many current ministers in President Hassan Rouhani’s Cabinet, were deeply involved in this dreadful crime.

All the regime’s inner factions have suffered serious damages following the release of this audio clip, as it sheds light on how members of the Khamenei and Rouhani/Rafsanjani factions were all involved in this opprobrium.

In the audio clip Montazeri is heard speaking with four different individuals: Mostafa Pour Mohammadi, then representative of the Ministry of Intelligence; Hossein-Ali Nayeri, a so-called Shariah judge; Morteza Eshraghi, the regime’s then chief public prosecutor; and Ibrahim Reisi, Eshraghi’s deputy. These individuals were appointed by Khomeini as the administrative committee — later dubbed the “Death Committee” —in charge of implementing his dreadful fatwa to execute all political prisoners in Tehran. Pour Mohammadi, Nayeri and Reisi have during all the years of this regime’s existence held senior political, security and judiciary posts, and were directly involved in most of the regime’s crimes.

Reisi was involved as a public prosecutor and judge in the regime’s killings from day one. A few months ago, Khamenei appointed him as a senior official in the Astan Quds Razavi, a very important political/economic entity in the regime’s establishment.

Pour Mohammadi was interior minister of firebrand President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad’s Cabinet. He is currently serving as Rouhani’s justice minister.

Nayeri has throughout the years held senior positions in the regime’s judiciary and is currently head of the Supreme Security Court of Judges.

The audio clip reveals Montazeri’s conversations with the “Death Committee” members: “They resorted to all kinds of atrocities in city prisons… it was horrendous in Ahvaz (southwest Iran)… 50 years later they will portray (Khomeini) as bloodthirsty, murderous and vicious… keep in my mind we will not always be in power.”

In yet another shocking example, Montazeri said, “In Isfahan a pregnant woman was among those massacred… in Shiite Islam a woman must not be executed, even if she is a mohareb (enemy of God). I told this to Khomeini, and he said no, women must also be executed.”

Neither can regime officials distance themselves from this act of barbarity, nor can they accept responsibility in this regard. Legally, and from a perspective of international law the published tape is a strong case revealing how the 1988 massacre was a completely pre-planned initiative with a crystal clear objective of annihilating the Iranian democratic opposition PMOI/MeK with all its members and supporters.

By all definitions, this is considered a crime against humanity and a case of genocide. Neither a crime against humanity, nor genocide, will ever be forgotten with the passage of time. It is the duty of the international community, including the United Nations Human Rights Council and Security Council, to place this case before the law and have its perpetrators face justice.

Source: arabnews.com/node/974596/columns

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A Scorpion in Pakistani Politics

By Tariq A. Al-Maeena

Aug 24, 2016

There is a scorpion in Pakistani politics and a very cowardly one.  He goes by the name of Altaf Hussain, the party chief of the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) party who has safely ensconced himself for many years in the relative safety of the UK while his followers toil and suffer amidst the unrest that he has helped foster in the province of Sindh.

He is an egomaniac who has been working for his own self, amassing wealth well beyond his earning potential and continuing to undermine government efforts to bring stability to Karachi and other areas dominated by the MQM.  It is a tragedy that Karachi, which once was visited by the rich and famous the world over, has been reduced to a war zone, torn apart by the antagonistic fervour exerted by Altaf Hussain and his leadership.

While he lives in comfort in London, he exhorts his followers to create mayhem by violent means.  Recently, upset that some media outlets in Pakistan were not giving him and his party the coverage he demanded, he called upon party members to attack their offices and reduce them to rubble.  Workers of the MQM protested violently in Karachi after being issued directives by the party chief to attack the offices of Geo, ARY and Samaa last Monday.  At least one person was tragically killed and several others injured as protesters clashed with police in Karachi’s downtown area on Monday evening.

Pak Sarzameen Party (PSP) chairman Mustafa Kamal termed the attack a result of Altaf Hussain’s hate speech. According to the PSP chief, Altaf Hussain also uttered abuse against Pakistan’s existence, the army chief and DG Rangers in one of his hate speeches.  “You will see the MQM chief apologizing soon and his followers telling you that he regrets his statements,” Kamal told reporters, adding that the MQM leader was most likely under the influence of alcohol when he went into his tirade against Pakistan. (In fact on Tuesday Aug. 23, Altaf did apologize and beg pardon for his remarks.)

Kamal, the former Karachi mayor, added: “Today’s incident proved what we have been saying all along.  The MQM is working against humanity and future generations of the country.”  He also implored MQM workers and other members of the Urdu-speaking community to “discontinue working for Altaf and foil his designs against the state”.

Calling the hunger strike organized by the MQM leadership a farce, he said that it did not include any prominent leaders of the party.  “A drama was staged wherein a number of people, excluding prominent leaders, claimed to be on hunger strike.”  The PSP chief once again repeated his assertion that “Altaf was working for India and taking funding from the country to collude and work against Pakistan.”

Following the attacks, the World Congress of Pakistanis (WCOP) based in London released a statement: “Altaf Hussain attacked Pakistan and British Pakistanis cannot tolerate it. British Pakistanis demand action against Altaf Hussain. He has destabilized Pakistan and action must be taken against him.”

A female member of the Sindh Assembly belonging to the MQM party announced her resignation following Altaf Hussain’s hateful speech that led to attacks on media offices in Karachi.  In a statement released on Twitter, Irum Azeem Farooque the Assembly member said she was disturbed and embarrassed to watch the videos of MQM workers vandalizing ARY News offices and clashing with police.  “Today I resign. Already did it two days ago but didn’t disclose because of the hunger strike. After watching the videos, I feel very embarrassed.”  “I’m shocked and utterly disappointed. I condemn the attack on ARY offices. No one should take the law into their own hands,” she tweeted. Many Pakistanis who love their nation were shocked as well and share her disappointment.

The scorpion who lives in London and seems hell-bent on destroying the stability of Pakistan to suit his own macabre purposes must be stopped by any means.  Pakistan must seek extradition procedures to bring him back to the country to stand for treason.  MQM party members must stop believing that the rest of Pakistan is out to destroy them.  This division has been created by scorpions such as Altaf Hussain to promote their own interests.

Can Pakistanis regardless of political affiliation unite once and for all and get rid of this poisonous menace in their midst?

Source: saudigazette.com.sa/opinion/scorpion-pakistani-politics/

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Turkey’s Nightmare Is Unfolding In Syria

By Joyce Karam

23 August 2016

With another ISIS suspected suicide bombing hitting Turkey last weekend, a growing influx of refugees of 2.7 million, and a more muscular Kurdish military front in Syria, it is safe to say that the Syrian war has become a real-time nightmare for Ankara with no real exit strategies.

When Turkey took a forceful position in the fall of 2011 against the Assad regime and in support of its opponents, the whole calculus was to avoid a long bleeding front on its border and help a more like-minded governing model to take shape in Damascus.

Today, these two goals have completely crumbled in the face of multiple border threats for Turkey and the fracturing of Syria between competing governing structures, militias, and terrorist organizations.

Syria’s emerging new threats are prompting a pivot in Turkey’s calculus, prioritizing – with the help of Russia and Iran – the immediate goals of moving against the Kurdish groups and countering ISIS, while shelving the Assad challenge at least until the Barack Obama administration leaves office.

Turkey’s New Priorities

While Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan was one of the first to call on Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to step down in November 2011, this goal no longer appears urgent nor realistic for Turkey. Turkish prime minister Binali Yildirim told reporters last Friday that Assad could have a role in the interim leadership or transition, but he must play no part in its future.

Neither a transition nor a change of leadership appear imminent in Syria which makes Turkey’s gesture on Assad more a case of political realism, and messaging to his allies. The more urgent priority that Yildrim pressed and that has been subject of ongoing diplomatic traffic between Turkey and Iran, and between Ankara and Moscow following Erdogan’s visit, is Syria’s unity, “territorial integrity” and “not to allow the country to be divided on any ethnic base.”

Syria’s emerging new threats are prompting a pivot in Turkey’s calculus, prioritizing – with the help of Russia and Iran – the immediate goals of moving against the Kurdish groups and countering ISIS, while shelving the Assad challenge at least until the Obama administration leaves office

Countering the Kurdish push for more autonomy in Syria has taken over Turkey’s calculus in the war, and is the driving force behind Erdogan’s new overtures to both Iran and Russia.

Assad for his part has flirted back with Turkey attacking PYD forces in Hasaka, with his army branding the group as Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), designated terrorist by Turkey. Attacking the YPG and labeling the PYD and PKK is music to Erdogan’s ears who could ironically find common ground with Assad whom he called two months ago “a more advanced terrorist” than ISIS.

Post-Manbij

The same Kurdish forces that Assad is attacking, have made with the help of the US progress against ISIS, in places like Kobani and more recently Manbij and as part of a bigger coalition called Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF).

Turkey according to Syrian opposition sources has requested from Washington that SDF leaves Manbij after the liberation and to avoid ethnic changes in the town from Arab to Kurdish. The same sources add that the failure to achieve this has angered Ankara who could exercise a stronger military hand in the North both against ISIS and YPG.

Turkey also appears to be responding by supporting a different coalition in fighting ISIS. Syrian rebels allied with Turkey are readying an attack on the town of Jarablus now under control of ISIS. Rebel sources also say Turkey’s help has been “crucial” in the Aleppo offensive against the Assad regime. This indicates that Ankara is walking on multiple ropes in Syria with three goals in mind, supporting its proxies, countering the Kurdish expansion, and fighting ISIS.

Impact on US Policy

The Turkish readjustment in Syria will be mostly felt on the US strategy relying on these same Kurdish forces that Turkey wants to counter in the fight against ISIS.

Ankara’s patience appears to have completely run out with the Obama administration ahead of a visit by Vice President Joe Biden this Wednesday. Evidently, Turkey’s repositioning towards Iran and Russia against a more robust Kurdish force will complicate Obama’s plans to encircle ISIS in Syria and liberate Mosul, Raqqa or both before he leaves office. Assad’s bombing of YPG in Hassaka also impedes these plans.

Finding a new arrangement in the fallout of Manbij is critical for both Washington and Ankara to derail ISIS in Syria. Yildrim pointing out that Turkey’s role will be more active in next six months is a signal to the US administration that Ankara will move to protect its interest in Syria until Obama leaves office.

For now, Syria is completely a new war for Turkey with different set of priorities and challenges than those that were in place at the outset of the conflict. Ousting Assad or establishing a more friendly government is no longer a realistic priority for Turkey as it readjusts with different actors for a longer and messier conflict across its border.

Source: english.alarabiya.net/en/views/2016/08/23/Turkey-s-nightmare-is-unfolding-in-Syria-.html

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Turkey Re-Evaluates Its Vital Interests

By Eyad Abu Shakra

23 August 2016

The other day it was announced that the US vice president Joe Biden would soon be visiting Turkey. The visit will follow frantic Turkish activities in the aftermath of the failed coup attempt.

Several issues, I presume, deserve to be scheduled for discussion between Mr Biden and Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, more so because Washington’s Middle East policies during the last few years have managed to change many of Ankara’s declared positions.

Regardless of definition, explanations, appraisals – especially as far as the alleged ‘role’ of Islamist figure Fethullah Gulen is concerned – the coup attempt will no doubt affect the march of Mr Erdogan’s Islamist government. Equally, it would be wrong to underestimate the impact of terrorist attacks that shook a number of Turkish cities during the last few months against the background of the worsening Syrian crisis, revitalized Kurdish secessionists and cooling of tensions with Israel. However, the most significant realities imposed on Ankara by Barack Obama’s Middle East policies remain those related to Russia and Iran.

Going back to JCPOA is not actually a replay. In fact, it is the first true step to understanding Washington’s current strategy until its term ends next November. Yes, JCPOA is the defining landmark in Obama’s political thought and strategic regional priorities; and the last three years that – candidly expressed – thought and those priorities were there for all to see.

Washington has allowed Tehran and Syria’s Bashar al-Assad to blackmail both the international community and the Syrian people with a morally and politically unacceptable choice between keeping the al-Assad regime which is nothing but a cat’s paw of Iran’s mullahs and their expansionist regional project, or leaving Syria and its people easy prey to ISIS bestial criminality and al-Qaeda’s extremism.

Due to Russia being under the leadership of Vladimir Putin, it has become a dynamic and ambitious player keen to regain the long gone regional influence of the former USSR

The above choice is exactly what al-Assad and Tehran wanted and strived for all along, and the outcome has been clear from the pictures from the town of Manbij, recently liberated from its ISIS nightmare. It is also the ideal script that would ‘wipe clean the slate’ of a criminal regime which since the late 1970s made a business of blackmail, murder, political outbidding, and trading in fake slogans.

Finally, it is what Obama’s Washington has adopted through demeaning and undermining the nationalist Syrian moderate opposition by depriving it of suitable quality weapons, and continuously rejecting its pleas for protective no-fly zones and safe havens under feeble excuses, as is proven every day by direct American military involvement in Iraq and Libya, and Washington’s active support of Kurdish militias.

Turning a blind eye to ISIS’ entrenchment and expansion has not been only intentional, but also required. This is why al-Raqqah was never bombarded, not even threatened, a full year after it fell to the brutal terrorist group and was proclaimed its capital. The same applies to other ISIS “enclaves” elsewhere in Greater Damascus and the open expanses of the Syrian Desert – which are supposedly vulnerable to air strikes – let alone, those close to the Israeli ceasefire line in the Golan Heights!

Turkey’s Mistakes

In the meantime, the Turkish leadership was committing two grave mistakes: The first, continuously over-threatening al-Assad and over-promising the Syrian oppositions without guarantees that it can effect a change; and the second, its ambiguous position vis-à-vis Tehran although it should have known the nature and extent of Iranian support for al-Assad, specifically, since IRGC-led and controlled Lebanese, Iraqi and Afghan Shi’ite militias were ‘ordered’ to fight inside Syria.

One might say these mistakes stemmed from wrong calculations based on naïve trust in Washington’s and NATO’s backing; and consequently, disregard of what Washington’s willingness to let down its old ally means, while keeping in mind Turkey’s geo-political problematic history with Russia.

Most likely, Ankara began to really worry when it noticed that Washington’s and Moscow’s views on Syria were rapidly converging to the point of total agreement. This went parallel with the unfolding Russian support for Al-Assad reaching the point of direct military involvement in September 2015.

The turning point, however, must have been Turkey’s downing the Russian fighter bomber near the Turkish – Syrian borders in late November 2015; as Washington’s and NATO’s lukewarm ‘solidarity’ with Ankara against Moscow’s bullying threats decisively proved that the page of the Cold War alliance between Turkey and the West was turned forever.

To add insult to injury, American whole-hearted backing for ‘nationalist’ Kurdish militias along the Turkish – Syrian borders despite Ankara’s expressed misgivings, and later Washington’s rush to directly confront ISIS in northern Iraq the moment it began threatening the autonomous ‘Iraqi Kurdistan’ region, only compounded Ankara’s suspicions and worries. Then, no sooner that the attempted coup had taken place than Erdogan accused US – based Mr. Gulen of being implicated, while also insinuating at an American role in it.

Obviously, this meant that all taboos have now been broken, as the Turkish leadership saw itself dealing with new regional and international realities. Erdogan decided to react in the light of what he viewed as Washington’s “betrayal” in the time of need, the Obama administration belittling what a threat “Greater Kurdistan” poses to Turkey and the polities of the Middle East. As a result Ankara took the decision to ‘open up’ to the three influential players in the region: Russia, Israel and Iran.

Ambitious Player

Due to Russia being under the leadership of Vladimir Putin, it has become a dynamic and ambitious player keen to regain the long gone regional influence of the former USSR; in addition to the fact that it is the historical ‘Christian’ competitor to ‘Muslim’ Turkey in south eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

As for Israel, it is a small-size major power which enjoys great influence in the West, especially, with the American ‘political establishment’.

Finally, Iran is the historical Eastern pole, whose entities and ruling dynasties coexisted and collaborated with, fought against, and allied to Turkey’s entities and ruling dynasties. In fact, the percentage of Turkic peoples with present day Iran exceeds non-Turks within Turkey.

However, although the two countries are currently competing against each other, and are in opposite sides in the Syrian crisis, they are united by a common concern. They both stand against a “Greater Kurdistan”; which may mean the Kurdish issue provides the window of opportunity for interest-based temporary coexistence and agreement of opportune regional influence sharing at the expense of the major absentee, i.e. the Arabs!

Source: english.alarabiya.net/en/views/2016/08/23/Turkey-re-evaluates-its-vital-interests.html

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Separation of Sexes at Hospitals

By Abdulaziz Al-Samary

Aug 24, 2016

SOCIAL media activists have circulated a new government decision that prevents mingling of unrelated men and women in the health sector. The Health Ministry has sent a circular to hospitals, health centers and clinics, instructing separation of male and female employees and patients.

It is worth mentioning that the Saudi society considers mingling of men and women totally prohibited although we don’t see the word mingling of sexes in the history and terminologies of the puritan followers of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and those who came just after them. We understand from Islamic history that the mingling of sexes was not seen in ordinary life of people during the time of Prophet and his followers.

I have understood the ministry’s decision differently. It emphasizes the need to organize work places where mixing of sexes is likely to occur. The decision also stresses the need to incriminate harassment against women and enact laws that would protect her honour. Citizens have witnessed violations in mixed working environment of the health sector.

Being a citizen who has spent a long period of time in the health sector let me explain my experience in this field. I still remember that a big hue and cry occurred at the Medical College of King Saud University in Riyadh several years ago when two consultants demanded from the mufti to prevent entry of male students to the delivery room and female students from specializing in male urology. If that proposal had been implemented the college would have lost its international recognition.

After the issuance of fatwa or religious ruling, the university hospital witnessed scenes of chaos and confusion as supporters and opponents clashed. Opponents said separating men and women at hospitals was impossible due to lack of enough medical staff in both sexes. Same is the case of nursing, a profession dominated by women. It is impossible to appoint only male nurses at men’s section of the hospital. If men join this profession in large numbers who will work for factories, army, and security agencies and markets that are mainly run by young men.

We should not generalize individual cases while making a judgment on this vital service sector where staff members generally uphold moral values. Hospital managements punish those who violate the honour of others including men and women. The honour of a patient is considered a red line, not only in Muslim countries but all over the world. I hope authorities conduct a detailed study on harassment against women to impose deterrent punishment on violators.

This is a big challenge for the Health Ministry and the minister of health always wanted to see a clear picture of the situation, which demands a strategic plan in order to distribute executive powers among health departments in the Kingdom’s regions. Every one of us knows that the call to abide by the teachings of Islam has reduced popular pressures to improve services.

In order to understand the decision’s dynamic impact, it should be applied on private hospitals. Then the picture would be complete. The cost of that decision would be much higher then what we can imagine. Many hospitals would be closed if the separation were made mandatory.

We should also think of applying the decision on markets where harassment of women is rampant. But it would not be easy to apply in markets.

Developed countries have imposed strict laws to prevent harassment after knowing it was impossible to apply the separation law in markets.

Supporters of separation are likely to be active at hospitals and this could trigger another conflict between them and the opponents, like the one that occurred at King Saud University. God may back hospital managers, as they would be exposed to greater pressure from supporters of the decision.

This may lead to a tumultuous dialogue in the corridors of hospitals and the role of the Commission for Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice (Haia) in executing the decision. The implementation of the decision could be postponed until the realization of complete separation of sexes in our daily life in all sectors but it would be impossible even if we spend our whole GDP.

Source; saudigazette.com.sa/opinion/local-viewpoint/separation-sexes-hospitals/

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Countries of Chaos and Prospects of Disintegration

By Turki Aldakhil

23 August 2016

During a dinner, New York Times (NYT) editor-in-chief Jake Silverstein met with writer Scott Anderson. They agreed to work on a feature on the threats facing the Middle East post-Arab Spring. Work on the story – described as an epic as it is longer than 40,000 words – lasted 18 months.

It is a really interesting piece, particularly in terms of the investigative journalism involved. An Arabic translation of the article, entitled “Fractured lands: How the Arab world came apart,” was published in Ash-Sharq al-Awsat. It addressed economic factors as it looked into the prospects of disintegration in the Arab world, and how states have been crushed and institutions weakened.

The piece noted: “The scattershot nature of the Arab Spring makes it hard to provide a single answer. Some nations were radically transformed, even as others right next door were barely touched. Some of the nations in crisis were relatively wealthy (Libya), others crushingly poor (Yemen). Some countries with comparatively benign dictatorships (Tunisia) blew up along with some of the region’s most brutal (Syria).

“The same range of political and economic disparity is seen in the nations that remained stable. Yet one pattern does emerge, and it is striking. While most of the 22 nations that make up the Arab world have been buffeted to some degree by the Arab Spring, the six most profoundly affected – Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen – are all republics, rather than monarchies.”

The Arab Spring exposed many social and cultural defects, awakening tribal affiliations as sectarianism fed off raging protests. This can clearly be seen in Syria

Social and Cultural Defects

There are major factors that are relevant to the prospects of disintegration and division in some Arab Spring countries. The Arab Spring exposed many social and cultural defects, awakening tribal affiliations as sectarianism fed off raging protests. This can clearly be seen in Syria, as the revolution shifted from a desire to achieve change to a struggle between Alawites and Shiites on one hand, and Sunnis who oppose the regime on the other.

This negative awakening makes countries such as Libya, Yemen and Syria an easy target for disintegration and collapse. This in addition to economic disparity in each country. We can complete Anderson’s note about monarchies by saying they are more able to adapt to global changes. The Arab Spring renewed their legitimacy as their citizens renewed their allegiance to them. In return, the states took developmental measures and devised programs and plans.

Since the days of Egypt’s late President Gamal Abdel Nasser and the era of Arab nationalism, some Arab republics have idolized some leaders provocatively, and outrageously idolized certain events, coups and revolutions. Meanwhile, people suffered from economic bankruptcy and institutional collapse. This made societies completely separate from politics. As time passes and idolization decreases, a desire for revenge and accountability surfaces

Even if people remain under the governance of a dictator for more than half a century, like in Libya, Syria and particularly Yemen, they will still find a way to avenge themselves. However, monarchies are distinguished for their rare wisdom, authentic awareness of societies’ needs, and being close to the people. This has created a social system that is radically different than those in Arab republics that adopted certain ideologies.

Therefore, the possibility of disintegration, as discussed in the NYT piece, will continue to exist because the situation on the ground is not stable yet, and these disturbed countries will not move toward peace anytime soon.

Although some crises are very bloody, they are still in their beginning stages, and we have only seen the tip of the iceberg. Unfortunately, the possibilities range from disintegration to division and ongoing civil war. Perhaps the best-case scenario will be ‘stable chaos’ within fragile economic entities.

Source: english.alarabiya.net/en/views/2016/08/23/Countries-of-chaos-and-prospects-of-disintegration.html

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/middle-east-press/new-age-islam-edit-bureau/remembering-the-forgotten-genocide–new-age-islam-s-selection,-24-august-2016/d/108343

– See more at: http://newageislam.com/middle-east-press/new-age-islam-edit-bureau/remembering-the-forgotten-genocide–new-age-islam-s-selection,-24-august-2016/d/108343#sthash.k8QmhVnx.dpuf

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