ISIS, Taliban, Al-Qaeda and Other Islamist Terrorists are Kharijites? An Analysis of 40 Major Characteristics of Kharijites

By Ghulam Ghaus, New Age Islam

30 January 2016

Is it fair to describe Members of ISIS, Taliban and their likes as Kharijites or Khawarij? A number of Sunni religious scholars (‘Ulema) have identified these modern terrorists as neo-Kharijites. On the contrary, some argue that Kharijite ideas were particular to a historical period and could not re-emerge among these terrorists. How should a Muslim respond to these contradictory views? Should he or she believe such ‘Ulema’ or be neutral? Such are the questions answered in this article, with reference to 40 significant characteristics of the Kharijites.

Who are the Khawarij?

Before we begin, we must of necessity understand the concept of Khawarij. The Arabic term “Al-Khawarij is plural of kharija i.e. a faction. They are a group of (blameworthy) innovators who are named as such due to their leaving the Din (religion) and rebelling against the best of Muslims.” (Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih Ul Bukhari, vol 12, page 283).

Imam Ibn Nujaym al-Hanafi says, “Khawarij are a group that possesses strength and fanaticism and revolt against Muslims or governments, owing to their (self-styled) interpretation. They hold the view that Muslims or governments are upon falsehood, disbelief or disobedience and thus it is necessary to fight against them. They declare that the blood and wealth of Muslims are lawful for shedding. (Bahr al-Raiq by Ibn Nujaym, vol 2, page 234). This precise definition by Imam Ibn Nujaym fits on Kharijites of all times.

The history of Khawarij dates back to the first century of Islam and has appeared throughout the centuries since. They deviated from mainstream Muslims, adopted extremist tendencies, anathematized many illustrious Companions of the prophet (Salallahu Alaihi Wasallam), rebelled majorly against Hazrat Ali (radi Allahuanahu) and were popularly known for killing Muslims under allegations ofTakfir (excommunication).

Characteristics of Kharijites currently apply to ISIS, Taliban and Al-Qaeda?

Several characteristics of Khawarij, mentioned in Hadith and prophecies of the prophet Muhammad (Salallahu Alaihi Wasallam) speeches of holy companions and scholars, assuredly prove that the modern terrorist organizations such as ISIS, Taliban and Al-Qaeda are Kharijites. Their forty major Characteristics are as follows:

1.       They are mostly young in age (حداث الأسنان/حدثاء الأسنان/أحداث الأسنان)

As prophesized by the prophet (Salallahu Alaihi Wasallam), “In the last days of this world there will appear some people among you who are young in age, immature and senseless; they will use (in their claim) the best speech of all people (i.e. the Qur’an) and they will abandon Islam as an arrow going through the game. Their belief will not go past their throats (i.e. they will have practically no belief), so wherever you meet them, kill them, for he who kills them shall get a reward on the Day of Resurrection.”

This hadith has been narrated in several places of the hadith books. The Arabic words used in hadith to refer to this first characteristic are ‘أحداث الأسنان’ or ‘حدثاء الأسنان’ or ‘حداث الأسنان’; all of them have the same meaning i.e. ‘Young people’ or ‘People with new teeth’ (i.e. young in age).

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 61, Chapter: “The signs of Prophethood in Islam”, Hadith 118)

(Ibid. Book 88, Chapter 6, Hadith 12)

(Ibid. Book 61, Chapter: “The signs of Prophet hood in Islam”, Hadith 118)

(Ibid. The book on Virtues of the Qur’an, Chapter: The sin of the person who recites the Qur’an to show off or to gain some worldly benefit, or to feel proud etc, Hadith 82)

(Sahih Muslim 1066 the Book of Zakat (12), Chapter (48): “Exhortation to kill the Khawarij”, Hadith 199)

(Jami` at-Tirmidhi, the Book On Al-Fitan (33), Chapter (24): What has been Related About The Description Of The Renegades, Hadith 31, Grade: Sahih)

(Sunan Abi Dawud, Book 42, Chapter 31 “Fighting Against the Khawarij” Hadith 172, Grade: Sahih)

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, the Book of the Sunnah, Hadith 168. Grade: Sahih)

2.       They are immature/people with foolish thoughts and ideas (سفهاء الأحلام)

We see that the people of ‘ISIS’ and their likes are easily brainwashed by the dreams of so-called ‘heaven’ (i.e. ‘Jannat’) and have foolish thoughts.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 88, Chapter 6, Hadith 12)

(Ibid. Book 61, Chapter: “The signs of Prophethood in Islam”, Hadith 118)

(Ibid. the book on Virtues of the Qur’an, Chapter: the sin of the person who recites the Qur’an to show off or to gain some worldly benefit, or to feel proud etc, Hadith 82)

(Sahih Muslim 1066, The Book of Zakat (12), Chapter (48): “Exhortation to kill the Khawarij”, Hadith 199)

(Jami` at-Tirmidhi, the Book on Al-Fitan (33), Chapter (24): What has been related About the Description of the Renegades, Hadith 31. Grade: Sahih)

(Sunan Abi Dawud, Book 42, Chapter 31 “Fighting Against the Khawarij” Hadith 172, Grade: Sahih)

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, the Book of the Sunnah, Hadith 168, Grade: Sahih)

3.       They will be the people with tucked-up loincloth / a waist sheet that was tucked up (مشمر الإزار)

(Sahih Muslim: The Book of Zakat 12, Chapter 47: The Khawarij and their attributes Hadith 189)

(Sahih al-Bukhari: The Book of Al-Maghazi 64, Chapter: Sending ‘Ali and Khalid to Yemen, Hadith 378)

4.       The people (Kharijites) will emerge from the East (يخرج ناس من قبل المشرق)

(Sahih al-Bukhari 7562: The Book of Oneness of Allah (Tawheed) 97, Chapter 57: The recitation of the Qur’an by an impious person or a hypocrite, Hadith 187)

In one narration, the prophet Muhammad (Salallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said while pointing his hand towards Iraq: “There will emerge from [Iraq] a people who recite the Qur’an but it will not go beyond their throats, and they will stray from Islam as an arrow strays from the animal [at which it is shot].” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 9, Hadith 68)

5.       They will continue to appear until the last of them comes with Dajjal [Anti-Christ] (لا يزالون يخرجون حتى يخرج آخرهم مع المسيح الدجال)

This prophecy refutes those who think that kharijite ideas were particular to historical period and could not re-emerge in modern days among terrorist groups.

(Sunan an-Nasa’i 4103, The Book of Fighting [The Prohibition of Bloodshed] 37, Chapter: “The One Who Unsheathes His Sword and Starts to Strike the People With it”, Hadith 138, Grade: Hasan)

6.       Their faith will not exceed their throats (لا يجاوز إيمانهم حناجرهم)

(Sahih al-Bukhari, The book on Virtues of the Qur’an, Chapter: The sin of the person who recites the Qur’an to show off or to gain some worldly benefit, or to feel proud etc, Hadith 82)

(Ibid., Book 61, Chapter: “The signs of Prophet hood in Islam”, Hadith 118)

(Ibid. Book 88, Chapter 6, Hadith 12)

(Sunan Abi Dawud, Book 42, Chapter 31 “Fighting Against the Khawarij” Hadith 172, Grade: Sahih)

(Sunan an-Nasa’i, the Book of Prohibition of bloodshed, Chapter: “The One Who Unsheathes His Sword and Starts to Strike the People With it”, Hadith 137, Grade: Sahih)

7.       They will become so deeply absorbed in the Din (Religion) to the point that they will leave it. (يتعمقون في الدين حتى يخرجوا امنه)

(As- Sunnah of Ibn Abi Aasim (no. 930) from ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Amr (Radi Allahu Anhu)

As the extremism of Khawarij is widely known, some scholars argue that Khawarij are disbelievers, adducing the prophet’s statement “to the point that they will leave it” as evidence for their standpoint. Other group of scholars keeps silence over the Takfir of Khawarij. However, all of them unanimously agree that the Khawarij have nothing to do with Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah: “orthodox Muslims”.

8.       They are excessive in performing acts of worship (يجتهدون في العبادة)

(Mu’jam fi Usami Shuyukh e Abi Bakr Al-Ismaaeli by Abu Bakr Ahmed bin Ibrahim, Hadith 246, Zammul kalamWa Ahlihi, Hadith 58, Ithaaful Maharah, hadith 11567)

9.       Every one among you will consider his prayer and fasting insignificant as compared with their prayer and fasting (يحقر أحدكم صلاته مع صلاتهم وصيامه مع صيامهم)

The Messenger of Allah (Salallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, “Leave him (Dhul Khuwasira, one of BanuTamim), for he has friends (who would outwardly look to be so religious and pious) that everyone among you would consider his prayer insignificant as compared with their prayer, and his fast as compared with their fasts. They would recite the Qur’an but it would not go beyond their collar-bones. They would pass through (the teachings of Islam so hurriedly) just as the arrow passes through the prey”.

(Sahih al-Bukhari 6933, Book 88, Hadith 15)

(Ibid. 6163: The Book of Good Manners (Al-Adab) 78, Chapter 95: Saying “Wailaka.”, Hadith 189)

(Ibid. 3610, Book 61, Hadith 117)

(Sahih Muslim 1064: the Book of Zakat 12, Chapter 47: the Khawarij and their attributes, Hadith 193)

(SUNAN IBN MAJAH, Book 1, Hadith 174. Grade: Sahih)

10.     Their prayer will not pass their collar-bones (لا تجاوز صلاتهم تراقيهم)

(Sunan Abi Dawud 4768, Book 42, Hadith 173, Grade: Sahih)

(Sahih Muslim 1066, Book 12, Hadith 204)

11.     They will recite the Qur’an, the teachings of which will not go past their throats (يقرءون القرآن لا يجاوز حلوقهم)

Meaning: TheKhawarij will recite the Qur’an but they will not understand the teachings of Allah Almighty. This is why it is reported that the Qur’an “will not go past their throats”

(Sahih al-Bukhari 6931, Book 88, Hadith 13)

(Ibid. 6934, Book 88, Hadith 16)

(Ibid. 7562, Book 97, Hadith 187)

(Ibid. 7432, Book 97, Hadith 59)

(Ibid. 3610, Book 61, Hadith 117)

(Ibid. 5058, Book 66, Hadith 83)

(Ibid. 3344, Book 60, Hadith 19)

(Sahih Muslim 822, Book 6, Hadith 336)

(Ibid. 1067, Book 12, Hadith 206)

(Ibid. 1066, Book 12, Hadith 199)

(Ibid. 1064, Book 12, Hadith 193)

(Ibid. 1064, Book 12, Hadith 188)

(Ibid. 1064, Book 12, Hadith 192)

(Sunan an-Nasa’i 4101, Book 37, Hadith 136, Grade: Sahih)

(Ibid. 4103, Book 37, Hadith 138)

(Sunan Abi Dawud 4764, Book 42, Hadith 169, Grade: Sahih)

(Ibid. 4765, Book 42, Hadith 170, Grade: Sahih)

(Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2188, Book 33, Hadith 31, Grade: Sahih)

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 1, Hadith 173, Grade: Sahih)

(Ibid. Hadith 177, Grade: Sahih

(Ibid. Hadith 175, Grade: Sahih)

(Ibid. Hadith 179, Grade: Hasan)

(Ibid. Hadith 180, Grade: Sahih)

(Muwatta Imam Malik Book 15, Hadith 482)

12.     They would recite the Qur’an thinking that it supports them, whereas it is evidence against them (يقرءون القرآن يحسبون أنه لهم وهو عليهم)

(Sahih Muslim 1066, Book 12, Hadith 204)

(Sunan Abi Dawud 4768, Book 42, Hadith 173, Grade: Sahih)

13.     They call to the book of Allah, but they have nothing to do with it (يدعون إلى كتاب الله وليسوا منه في شيء)

It means they will try to use evidences from the Qur’an but err in understanding it and deriving the best meaning from it.

(Sunan Abi Dawud 4765, Book 42, Hadith 170, Grade: Sahih)

14.     They talk (in such a manner) as if their words are the best among the creatures (يَقُولُونَ مِنْ خَيْرِ قَوْلِ الْبَرِيَّةِ)

(Sahih al-Bukhari 5057, Book 66, Hadith 82)

(Sahih Muslim 1066, Book 12, Hadith 199)

(Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2188, Book 33, Hadith 31, Grade: Sahih)

15.     They will be good in speech and bad in work (قَوْمٌ يُحْسِنُونَ الْقِيلَ وَيُسِيئُونَ الْفِعْلَ)

It means the Khawarij beautify their speech but commit vile actions such as killing innocent lives and creating division in Muslim community.

(Sunan Abi Dawud 4765, Book 42, Hadith 170, Grade: Sahih)

16.     They are worst of the people and animals/creatures (هم شر الخلق والخليقة)

(Sahih Muslim 1067, Book 12, Hadith 206)

(Ibid. 1065, Book 12, Hadith 194)

(Sunan Abi Dawud 4765, Book 42, Hadith 170, Grade: Sahih)

(Sunan an-Nasa’i 4103, Book 37, Hadith 138, Grade: Hasan)

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 1, Hadith 175, Grade: Sahih)

17.     They disparage their rulers and claim them to be upon misguidance, as ‘Abdullaah bin Dhil Khuwaysirah did with the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) (يطعنون على أمرائهم ويشهدون عليهم بالضلالة)

(As Sunnah by Ibn ‘Asim, 2/455, Hadith 967)

(MajmauzZawaid, Al-Haithmi, 6/228)

18.     They will come out at the time of difference among the (Muslim) people. (يخرجون على حين فرقة من الناس)

(Sahih al-Bukhari 6163, Book 78, Hadith 189)

(Ibid. 6933, Book 88, Hadith 15)

(Ibid. 3610, Book 61, Hadith 117)

(Sahih Muslim 1064, Book 12, Hadith 193)

19.     They will kill the Muslims and leave alone the idolaters (يقتلون أهل الإسلام ويدعون أهل الإسلام)

This is a fact known to all of us by the situation in Syria, Iraq and other Muslim countries that they fight primarily against Muslims.

(Sahih al-Bukhari 3344, Book 60, Hadith 19)

(Ibid. 7432, Book 97, Hadith 59)

(Sahih Muslim 1064, Book 12, Hadith 188)

(Sunan Abi Dawud 4764, Book 42, Hadith 169, Grade: Sahih)

20.     They shed forbidden blood- whether their own by way of suicide or others by attacking them by way of murder (from the speech of Hazrat Ali Radi Allahu Anhu) (يسفكون الدم الحرام)

(Sahih Muslim 1066, Book 12, Hadith 204)

21.     They lie in wait on the roads for the purpose of attacking the passers- by and spilling their blood without any justification from Allaah (from the speech of Hazrat Aisha RadiAllahuAnha)

(Al- Mustadrak by Al Hakim (2/153) and MajmauzZawaa’id (6/236)

22.     They will believe the Muhkam verses and fight over allegorical verses (Mutashabihat) (يؤمنون بمحكمه ويهلكون عند متشابه) (from the speech of Ibn Abbas RadiAllahuAnhu)

(Jamiul Bayan fi Tafsiril Quran by Tabari, 3:181)

(Fathul Bari by Hajar Al-Asqalani 12/300)

23.     They will speak the truth with their tongues, but it will not go past from their throats (يقولون الحق بألسنتهم لا يجاوز حلوقهم)

(From the speech of Hazrat Ali RadiAllahuAnhuh, Sahih Muslim, The book of Zakat, Hadith 1066)

24.     They take verses that were revealed concerning the disbelievers and apply them to the believers. (ينطلقون إلى آيات نزلت في الكفار فيجعلوها على المؤمنين)

(From the speech of Ibn Umar (RadiAllahuAnhu), Sahih Al-Bukhari, chapter ‘Killing the Khawarij and Heretics after establishin the proof against them)

25.     They will go out of the religion (i.e. Islam) as an arrow goes through a game’s body (يمرقون من الدين كما يمرق من الرمية)

(Sahih al-Bukhari: The Book of Al-Maghazi 64, Chapter: Sending ‘Ali and Khalid to Yemen, Hadith 378)  (Sahih Muslim)

26.     Those who kill them (kharijites), shall get a reward on the Day of Resurrection (الأجر العظيم لمن قتلهم)

Those who are fighting against neo-Kharijites including ISIS, Taliban and Al-Qaeda, shall get a reward on the Day of Resurrection.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 61, Chapter: “The signs of Prophethood in Islam”, Hadith 118) (Sahih Muslim)

27.     The best of the Slain are those who were killed by them (خير قتلى منقتلوه)

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 1, Hadith 181) (Tirmidhi)

28.     The Khawarij are the worst of the slain who are killed under heaven (شر قتلى تحت أديم السماء)

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 1, Hadith 181) (Tirmidhi)

29.     They (Khawarij) are dogs of the hellfire (إنهم كلاب النار)

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 1, Hadith 181) (Tirmidhi)

30.     The Khawarij hold that a Muslim becomes disbeliever due to every sin,saying “they leave the fold of faith and enter into disbelief”. (Sharhul ‘Aqeedah al- Tahawiyyah page. 298)

31.     The Khawarij believe that the Muslims who commit major sins will live eternally in the Hellfire.  (Sharhul ‘Aqeedah al- Tahawiyyah page. 360)

32.     The Khawarij are the worst people in deriving rulings based on analogy. (Al-Milal wan Nihal 1/116)

33. Some sects of Khawarij consider those who do not accept their views to be disbelievers, and then declare their blood lawful for shedding. They also allow killing women, children and the old who oppose them. (Lawaamiul Anwaar al Bahiyyah (1/86)

34.     One of the characteristics of khawarij is that those Muslims who are following Taqleed are a cause for disbelief and the destruction of Islamic ummah. Thus they oppose Muqallid scholars. (Diraasatun Anil FiraqwaTaareekhil Muslimeen, pg. 146-147)

35.     Some of the Khawrij believe that a person who believes that the consensus (Ijma’) of the scholars is proof in Islamic Sharia is a disbeliever. (Diraasatun Anil FiraqwaTaareekhil Muslimeen, pg. 143)

36.     They prefer illiteracy to education, claiming that the combination between religious sciences and the practical secular sciences is not possible. (Diraasatun Anil FiraqwaTaareekhil Muslimeen, pg. 134)

37.     They use only those verses of the Qur’an that are about Wa’eed (Allaah’s warning of punishment) while they avoid using the verses regarding the Wa’ad (Allaah’s promise of forgiveness and mercifulness) (Al Khawarij Awwal ul Firaq fi Taarikhil Islam p. 38)

38.     They make rulings in haste. (Al Khawarij Awwalul Firaq fi Taarikhil Islam p. 146)

39.     They outwardly display the attributes of calling towards good and forbidding the evil, using Religious texts, while they dispute with and rebel against the rulers and fight against those Muslims who do not obey them.  (Al Khawarij Awwal ul Firaq fi Taarikhil Islam p. 37)

 

40.  They incite teenage girls, family members, and wives, mothers and fathers to break away from their relatives and family to join their Kharijism.

Ibn Kathir describes this characteristic of Khawarij:

“ثم خرجوا يتسللون وحدانا ، لئلا يعلم أحد بهم فيمنعوهم من الخروج فجرجوا من بين الآباء والأمهات والأعمام والعمات وفارقوا سائر القرابات ، يعتقدون بجهلهم وقلة علمهم وعقلهم أن هذا الأمر يرضي رب الأرض والسماوات ، ولم يعلموا أنه من أكبر الكبائر والذنوب الموبقات والعظائم والخطيئات وأنه مما يزينه لهم إبليس وأنفهسم التي هي بالسوء أمارات. وقد تدارك جماعة منهم بعض أولادهم وقراباتهم وإخوانهم فردوهم و وبخوهم ، فمنهم من استمر على الاستقامة ، ومنهم من فر بعد ذالك فلحق بالخوارج فخسر إلى يوم القيامة”

Translation: “Then they (Khawarij) went slipping away alone to avoid detection so that no one would be able to prevent them from leaving. They went from the midst of their fathers, mothers, uncles and aunts, leaving behind all the kith and kin. Due to their ignorance, little knowledge or understanding, they believed that it would please the Lord of Earth and Heaven, not realising that it was in fact of the greatest crimes, the most destructive sins, monstrosities and wrong doings. They did not realise that this had been made attractive to them by the devil and their own egos hell-bent on wickedness. Some people were able to salvage some of their offspring, relatives, and brethren, and return them back and rebuke them. Then, some of these remained upright while others fled afterwards and joined the Khawarij, and so became losers until the Day of Resurrection.” (Al-Bidaya wan Nihaya, v. 10, p. 581)

Given the characteristics of Kharijites clearly mentioned in several Hadith, speeches of holy companions and religious scholars, as some of which referenced above, it is quite fair to describe the ‘ISIS’ and other Islamist terrorists as Kharijite terrorists. It is also worthy to note here that in several Sahih Hadith, the Prophet (Salallahu Alaihi Wasallam) has commanded Muslims to fight Kharijites. It is, therefore, incumbent (Wajib) upon Muslim governments and rulers to fight against the ISIS, Taliban, Al-Qaeda and Boko Haram, in order to protect Muslims and non-Muslims and establish peace worldwide. As for Muslim scholars, they ought to perform this fight as a wajib on ideological ground, refuting their Kharijite narratives and characteristics.

        A regular columnist for New Age Islam, Ghulam Ghaus is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi background. He completed the classical Islamic sciences from a Delhi-based Sufi Islamic seminary Jamia Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia Zakir Nagar, New Delhi with specialization in Tafseer, Hadith and Arabic. He completed his Alimiat and Fazilat respectively from Jamia Warsia Arabic College, Lucknow and Jamia Manzar- e- Islam, Bareilly, U.P. He did his graduation in Arabic (Hons) and post-graduation (Arabic) from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.

URL:http://www.newageislam.com/islamic-ideology/ghulam-ghaus,-new-age-islam/isis,-taliban,-al-qaeda-and-other-islamist-terrorists-are-kharijites?-an-analysis-of-40-major-characteristics-of-kharijites/d/106173

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s